Piperine is a polysaccharide from black pepper and is responsible for its pungency (Rao et al. 2011). It enhances the absorption of ingredients a few ways.
With glucuronides piperine inhibits small intestinal glucuronidation (Lambert et al. 2004; Shoba et al. 1998). Glucuronidated compounds that have a glycosidic bond, a link that joins a carbohydrate molecule to another molecule (Bhagavan 2002). This mode of action is caused by inhibition of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), the glycosyltransferase enzymes that catalyze glucuronidation of compounds (Dutton 1980; Schutzbach & Brockhausen 2009). In other words piperine stops the breakdown of glucuronides (Chang et al. 2011).
Piperine inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (Gurley et al. 2012). Cytochrome P450 enzymes located in the liver and small intestines are essential for the metabolism of over 50% of medicines and endogenous compounds (Ince et al. 2013). CYP3A4 contributes to bile acid detoxification, terminates the active of steroid hormones, and elimination of phytochemicals and drugs (Zanger & Schwab 2013). By inhibiting CYP3A4 you can significantly increase the bioavailability of CYP3A4 substrates (Kato 2008).
Piperine also inhibits permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) (Bhardwaj et al. 2002). P-gp is a plasma membrane protein which acts as a drug transport mechanism, a kind of transmembrane pump which removes drugs from the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Be blocking P-gp you increase the absorption of ingredients (Su 2005; Finch & Pillans 2014).
There is evidence of piperine displaying neurocognitive benefits due to its activity on the cholinergic system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (Tu et al. 2016), which in turn enhances citicoline.
Dopamine is mainly metabolized by MAO-B (Olanow et al. 2001) and thus by inhibiting MAO-B you allow greater levels of dopamine.
An extract from the book 'Creating The Anomaly'.
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